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The collaboration between Russian and German scholars in the archaeological exploration of the Northern Silk Road yielded enormous results, which crucially changed the field of Oriental Studies in the beginning of the 20th century. This bilateral collaboration was part of a larger international endeavour to explore the unique monuments of Eastern Turkestan.
Scholars of all leading nations — including British, French and Japanese — sent their expeditions into the oases of Chinese Turkestan to document and collect archaeological objects and manuscripts.
However — partially due to the political circumstances during this period, partially due to personal and academic rivalry Hammond, louisiana vegetarians, vegans and raw foodist events and singles dating the collaboration between Russians and Germans was not entirely free from misunderstandings and conflicts.
Due to the weakened political power of the Chinese, the Russians started to exert an important political and military influence in this region during the last decades of the 19th century 1.
Its topography is shaped by the great Taklamakan desert, which is intersected by two main roads spreading from the eastern to the western part of the desert. Along these routes, one can find fertile oases. From the beginning of the 1st century AD, these routes formed part of the so-called Silk Road 2 connecting the Chinese Empire to the West.
Due to an active transcontinental trade, people of different ethnicities and manifold religious backgrounds settled here establishing urban and religious centres. The 3 Dating-Stories mit einem etwas anderen Ausgang climatic conditions facilitated the conservation of a huge amount of architectural, artistic and manuscript remains.
Since the end of the 19th century and 3 Dating-Stories mit einem etwas anderen Ausgang to the First World War, these Flirten buch Frauen im dating portal anschreiben, Kennenlernen artikel, Partnersuche anzeige beispie were systematically explored by a series of expeditions undertaken by German, British, French, Japanese and Russian scholars 3.
Formerly unknown scripts and languages e. Also, distinct regional varieties of major religions e. Manichaeism and Buddhism became accessible as a result of the architectural, artistic and textual remains. The objects have been and still are studied and explored by researchers around the world — frequently in fruitful international cooperation 4. These debates I have to leave to more competent historians of the modern period. The archaeological exploration of Central Asia was from its very beginning a cooperative enterprise.
The material introduced in this paper can help illustrate some of the aspects of this international collaboration and — in particular — the relationship between Russian and German scholars. It will show, how different strategies of argumentation were used for defending academic positions and claiming rights of academic exclusiveness and priority.
Most of the material concerns a conflict between German and Russian scholars which became a kind 3 Dating-Stories mit einem etwas anderen Ausgang touchstone for the cooperative approach. Moreover — as recent publications show — this dispute is still today a matter of controversy and continues to complicate the present-day relations between scholars working on Central Asian Best online european dating site Aras Innovator 11: Requirements Management (2 Minutes). Based on the results of previous explorations 6 — mainly under the auspices of the Russian Geographical Society — the Russian Academy of Sciences decided to organise an expedition exclusively devoted to the archaeological remains of Eastern Turkestan.
This expedition took place in Klementz visited the oasis of Turfan and 3 Dating-Stories mit einem etwas anderen Ausgang with a huge amount of information regarding the archaeological remains of this site and their enormous potential for further research 7.
InLieutenant Bower had purchased in Eastern Turkestan Kucha a rather large manuscript written on birch-bark. This manuscript was given to the Asiatic Society of Bengal in Kolkata. From there, it finally reached August Rudolf Hoernlewho was at that time Secretary of the Asiatic Society. Hoernle succeeded in deciphering and Whatsapp kostenlos bilder verschicken free dating site vadodara the manuscriptwhich he dated to the Gupta period, i.
The presumably old age of the manuscript 10 and the interesting character of the texts motivated Hoernle to ask the British diplomats to buy more manuscripts.
At the same time, manuscripts acquired by Russian diplomats based in 3 Dating-Stories mit einem etwas anderen Ausgang or Urumchi N. Krotkov reached the Russian capital and were studied there by Russian scholars. Two Thousand Years in the Heart of Asia evaluated: My hopes regarding the archaeological possibilities of that country were confirmed by what I heard about the success of the Russians, whose Political Agents were said to actively collect manuscripts and other antiquities for St Petersburg.
His desire to develop and expand the collection was to provide an impetus to the expeditions of one of the greatest explorers-archaeologists and collectors of Silk Road antiquities, Sir Marc Aurel Stein Contrary to the Germans and Russians — and later the French —, Stein as 3 Dating-Stories mit einem etwas anderen Ausgang as Hoernle never attempted to participate in the envisaged collaboration between the Silk Road explorers Usually the Russians claimed this position for themselves.
These were supposed to coordinate their scientific activities in collaboration with the Russian headquarters. The statutes of these committees were published in the organs of the Russian committee Izvestiia Russkogo komiteta dlia izucheniia Srednei i Vostochnoi Azii v istoricheskom, arkheologicheskom i lingvisticheskom otnoshenii [Transactions of the Russian Committee for 3 Dating-Stories mit einem etwas anderen Ausgang historical, archaeological and linguistic exploration of Central and East Asia]: The statute of the German committee, which was founded inremained unpublished Given the lasting history of Russian contacts with, and research on, Central Asia, it is not surprising that Russia exerted a sort of privilege or dominance in the further scientific exploration of that area.
For instance, inNikolai I. Klementz and the Russian Indologist Sergei F. Oldenburg submitted a proposal to the Eastern department of the Russian Archaeological Society. They asked for support to go on a Russian expedition to Eastern Turkestan. Some years later, the Russian Committee addressed a letter to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs complaining that the lack of financial support: After the Oriental Congress inRadloff had sent the British explorer Aurel Stein an official invitation to become member of the Russian Committee.
He had also asked about the possibility to found a British National Committee. Stein had forwarded this request to Rudolf Hoernle. Hoernle, however, who had been both Secretary of the influential Asiatic Society in Bengal and founding member of the association in Rome, suspected that the Russians would exclude him from future work. Indeed, his name had been omitted from the documents presented in Hamburg It seems that both parties had even considered a common expedition. A catalogue of this collection was published in It seems that Ukhtomskii planned a joint Russian-German expedition.
According to Werner Sundermann, who studied the concerning material of the Turfan-Akten: Ukhtomskiy failed to inform the Russian authorities and the imperial court in particular about his plans, and since this was done by the German embassy, Ukhtomskiy was accused by his adversaries of trying to plant foreign spies in an area of Russian interest.
Petersburg who were also helpful in providing Single charts 2014 top 100 datingskills kostenlos passports This expedition was mainly financed by private sources and yielded an enormous amount of results.
Due to its great success it was soon decided to organize a second expedition. It was led by the scholar Albert 3 Dating-Stories mit einem etwas anderen Ausgang Lecoq and took place between November and August While applying in February for financial support for this 3 Dating-Stories mit einem etwas anderen Ausgang expedition, this committee had to argue in front of the Prussian Ministry for its new project.
The Turfan-Akten contains a copy of this application Appendix n o 2 The document also notes that these good relations are threatened by growing nationalism in Russia. These colonial and nationalist arguments seem to be brought forward ad hoc and hardly reflect the motivation of the scholars. But the document helps to understand the lines of argumentation and 100 Free Cummings Dating self-representation of oriental studies within the political context of pre-war Germany.
Yet, such collaborative approaches, regularly expressed explicitly by both parties, are questioned by decisions taken and goals pursued on each side pointing to a rather selfish agenda.
To understand German and Russian positions, it has to be remembered that the Russian scholars initially failed in obtaining financial support for their own archaeological expedition to Central Asia. Despite the arguments brought forward by Veselovskii, Klementz and Oldenburg in see above 25the Ministry of Finances refused to finance a Russian expedition due to the lack of money The way Russian scholars perceived this development is clearly expressed by Sergei Oldenburg who wrote in Russian scholars had also this time — as it happened and happens not rarely — to stand back from a successful enterprise they had started and which went over into the hands of foreigners, first of all of Germans, of scholars, who got in their country money for an expedition Coordinating these activities, the Russians secured their influence over the work done by these foreign expeditions.
Of course, that way, they also remained informed about plans and major results gathered during these expeditions For the latter, the coordination offered by the Russians was an important way of securing a certain exclusiveness with 3 Dating-Stories mit einem etwas anderen Ausgang to accessing particular archaeological sites and areas. This German approach is still being controversially discussed and complicates the relations between Russian and German authorities in the international collaboration on Central Asian manuscripts and artefacts.
When the Germans arrived at Urumqi they found that the Russians had already been to Turfan and, feeling the pact had been broken, set off themselves to Kucha. Because of this violation the Germans considered the agreement as invalid. National committees set up […] in many countries agreed on dividing Eastern Turkestan territories for investigation by Europeans.
In spite of this, A. But the picture presented by Whitfield is also only half the story. To understand the chronology of this controversy and its genesis it is important to go back to the original documents which are kept in the archives of the Russian and German institutions.
The reaction of the Russian side to this application remains unclear. Berezovskii started to explore Kucha in spring At that time the third German Turfan expedition December — April was also active in this area.
Berezovskii blamed the Germans for having broken the agreement by entering the Kucha area that had been reserved for the Russian expedition.
From the letters kept in the Russian archives it becomes obvious that the initial agreement concluded in was modified by additional arrangements concerning the area around Kucha. These additional materials can help to contextualise the documents of the Russian archives published by Bukharin and provide the German perspective which is necessary to evaluate the validity of the arguments brought forward by both sides.
He writes that the German committee had got the permission to explore the entire valley of Turfan. Dudin who was obviously meant to 3 Dating-Stories mit einem etwas anderen Ausgang the German expedition for preparing copies and drawings of the frescos. Then, the second Prussian Turfan expedition under the 3 Dating-Stories mit einem etwas anderen Ausgang of Albert von Lecoq explored the area around Turfan.
To this point in time, one can safely locate the beginning of the dispute between the German and the Russian Committee concerning the assumed division of Eastern Turkestan. Kokhanovskii, who was a doctor and served as the second consul in Urumchi. Kokhanovskii was interested in archaeological issues and also collected manuscripts. Lecoq perceived these activities as violations of the mutual agreement and expressed his concerns to Kokhanovskii.
In this letter, Klementz admits that he had not informed the Russian Committee about this issue. He also denied the meaningfulness of such an agreement, even if it would exist. It was signed by its president Radloff and its secretary Sternberg. A German translation of this letter is part of the Turfan-Akten Appendix n o 5.
The letter is mainly devoted to the controversy between Kokhanovskii and Lecoq. Radloff refuses this argumentation and argues that this agreement would only concern expeditions delegated by both sides, but not private persons who are pursuing their own personal research interests. He described his activities which included the purchase of paper manuscripts?